At rest, burning an adult approximately 1500 kcal / day. When activity increases calorie burning at about 2000 – 3000 kcal / day. If you burn more calories than your body’s weight loss occurs. If instead you get yourself in more calories than your body burns leads to weight gain. This is an old and well-accepted theory.
An adult needs about 1500 kcal per day for the body to function. The physical activity increases calorie burning, which means that an active person needs more energy than a sedentary. When the body burns more energy than it takes in resulting weight loss. If the body rather than have more energy than it does of as we go up in weight. Thus, we can control our own body weight by balancing energy intake and calorie expenditure.
The body constantly burns calories when it needs energy to sustain breathing, digestion and other processes in the body. In addition to the energy needed to just stay alive makes the body with extra energy when we move. If we want to spend many calories to lose weight, it is a good idea to exercise. But we must not pursue advanced sports to use up calories, all activities of daily burn extra energy.
The calories that we consume, but which the body does not burn off stored as fat in the body. If energy intake since the decrease or the physical activity increases as the body takes energy from the stored fat and we lose weight.
Table of how much energy the body to discharge during physical activity can be found here.
Everything that we eat provides energy in different amounts. But that’s not enough to just count the number of calories to eat healthy. For example, three or four Danish pastry a day to fill the daily requirement of energy for a sedentary person. But these pastries will not give your body the nutrients it needs. Soft drinks, candy, snacks and other sweets that are high in sugar and almost no vitamins and minerals is referred to as “empty calories”. For a large proportion of empty calories and little nutrition can eventually give us diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
The right kind of calories
A healthy and varied diet provides the essential nutrients we need to function. Healthy food not only makes us look better on the outside but also affect the inside. The body’s organs depend on nutritious food and healthy food gives the body a better immune system making us more alert and healthier. Although our mood, our learning ability and performance is affected by what we eat.
How many calories we should eat depends on age, sex, body size, physical activity and if we want to gain or lose weight. A guideline is that women should eat about 2000 calories a day and men 2500-3000 calories.
According to the NFA, we should eat three meals a day and feel free to snack in between. The food we eat should consist of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Carbohydrates constitute the largest energy intake and fat in the least. The “plate model” as NFA advocates is the plate divided into five parts, two parts are filled with carbohydrates such as potatoes, rice, pasta etc, two parts are filled with vegetables and fruits and the fifth installment are filled with proteins such as meat or fish.
In recent years there has arisen a variety of diets and dietary guidelines that differ from the plate model.
Carbohydrates are a group of sugars found in many different forms. Often we talk about slow and fast carbs. For the slow carbohydrates include, for example, brown bread, wholemeal pasta and beans. These products break down slowly in the body and keeps us satisfied longer.
Fast carbohydrates, like sweets, soft drinks and white bread, is rapidly degraded in digestion and gives a high blood sugar. The elevated blood sugar leads to insulin surcharge increases which means that we will soon get hungry again.
Glycemic Index, GI, is a measure of how quickly carbohydrates are digested and how they affect blood sugar. Eating as GI is a common way of trying to lose weight.
Proteins are essential components in the body and part of the body’s tissue cells. Meat, fish, eggs, dairy products and beans contain protein. Proteins are made up of amino acids and because the body can not form all of these amino acids itself, it is important to take in from food. Adults should eat about 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. By multiplying their body weight by 0.8, we develop a recommendation on a total protein intake per day. Those who train hard may need to eat extra protein as muscle is built up of protein.
Fats are available in several different varieties, we usually call them as saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat. Sometimes we are also talking about trans fats, it is a fat that is formed in food production when liquid oils are hardened. Trans fats and saturated fats is said to be harmful to the body when they build up cholesterol in the blood that can lead to diseases.
Saturated fat found in dairy products, fatty meat products, chocolate, and in many baked goods. Monounsaturated fats are found for example in olive oil, almonds, nuts and avocados. Polyunsaturated fats with healthy subjects omega-3 and omega-6 found in oily fish such as salmon and mackerel, in canola oil and flaxseed.
Fats contain about twice as many calories per gram as carbohydrates and proteins and therefore gives fat products a lot of energy in relation to mass. The body needs fats, however, so even those attempting to lose weight need to eat a small amount of fat.